Now that more people are aware of the risks of smoking and society looks down on smokers, less people are smoking.
Spotting culture shifts is an important skill in protecting your business, especially if you sell goods like clothing or entertainment products. All people are influenced by the way they were raised and the interests of their families. A child with open and liberal parents is probably more likely to buy blue hair dye or daring fashion items, while those from upbringings that are more conservative will stick with products their families will find acceptable.
Many people make purchasing decisions based on personal tastes, but fail to recognize the degree to which their personal tastes were sculpted by their parents and other family members.
Some of the decisions made by consumers are based on their idea of self. The political environment can play a large part in consumer decision-making. In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on September 11, , sales of American flags and products with patriotic messages soared. Consumer tastes can be modified by the important political topic of the day. The Catholic church bans members from seeing certain movies or reading certain books, while atheists are probably less likely to buy a self-improvement book steeped in spirituality.
In behavioural science, learning means any change in behaviour which comes about as a result of experience. Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge.
This process of learning is made up of four stages namely, Drive- cue-response and Reinforcement. Thus, hunger or thirst can be a drive. Here, it can be purchased of food item or soft-drink.
The food item or soft-drink. The food item or soft drink satisfies the hunger or the thirst. When reinforcement happens, the response may be duplicated resulting in habit formation or absence of reinforcement results in extinction of learnt habit.
As most consumer behaviour is learnt behaviour, it has deep impact on consumer buying process. Prior experience and learning acts as buying guide. In-spite of such habitual behaviour, one can think of reasonable amount of brand switching, trying new products, does take place.
The strong tendency of most consumers to develop brand loyalties definitely benefits the makers of established brands. This makes the manufacturer of a new brand to face difficulty in breaking such loyalties and encouraging brand switching.
He succeeds in his efforts when he shows that his product is potentially much more satisfying than his competitors. Free sampling, in store trial and demonstrations and deal activities may be used to break the existing brand barrier to establish new patterns of purchase behaviour.
To the extent the learning and brand loyalty can be gained for a product, the manufacturer activates a more stable sales profile less vulnerable to the competitive inroads. The concept of attitude occupies a central position in the consumer behaviour studies in particular and social psychology in general because; attitude measurements help in understanding and prediction of consumer behaviour.
Attitudes develop gradually as a result of experience; they emerge from interaction of a person with family, friends, and reference groups. There are three distinct components of attitude namely, cognitive, affective and co-native.
It is based on the reason and is linked with knowledge and about the object, thing or an event whether it is pleasant or unpleasant, tasty how an individual responds to the object, thing or an event. It is based on the other two components and is related with his behaviour. Each of the three attitude components vary according to both the situation and the person. The marketer may be interested in confirming the existing attitudes, or change in the existing attitudes or create new attitudes depending on how his product is performing in the market.
Attitude confirmation is, perhaps, the easiest course of action which is followed in case of established products. Such an act involves only reminding the consumers as to why they like it and why they should continue it to purchase.
Attitude changing is more difficult task than mere confirming it. It is a change from disposition to act in the direction of the original attitude to a disposition to act in the opposite direction. A product disliked is to be liked by the consumers. It is really a difficult process. Attitude creation is to make the consumers to forget the old products or brands and to make them to go in for new product or brand entirely altogether, in fact, it is comparatively easier to create new attitudes than to change the existing one.
The most powerful instrument of attitude change and creation is advertising. However, in strict sense, it refers to the essential differences between one individual and another. Therefore, personality consists of the mannerisms, habits and actions that make a person an individual and thereby serve to make him distinct from everyone else. It is the function of innate drives, learned motives and experience. This means that an individual responds with certain amount of consistency to similar stimuli.
The personality of an individual is either expressed in terms of traits or type. The personality traits may be aggressiveness honesty anxiety independence sociability and so on. The personality types may be introvert or extrovert or another classification as tradition direction outer direction and inner direction. Each of these traits and types has been explored as the possible clues to the behaviour of consumers. In the area of psychological determinants, the consumer behaviour was seen from the stand point view of an individual.
Many of the decisions made by consumers are taken within the environment of the family and are affected by the desires, attitudes, and values of the other family members. Family, as a primary group, is vital because, it links the individual with a wider society and it is through this that the individual learns the roles appropriate to the adult life.
There is another way of classifying the family based on family life-cycle. The family influence on the individual personality characteristics, attitudes and the evaluative criteria and.
The family influence in the decision-making process involved in the purchases. Family is both a purchasing and consuming unit. Therefore, it is essential to note the distinguished family roles of the members. That is why; every marketer is keenly interested in four points in case of family purchase.
In nuclear families, it is mostly the house-wife that has an upper hand in family purchases regarding her family role such as food, clothing, cosmetics, interior decoration and jewelleries. Father has say over clothing, education, insurance etc. Family life-cycle also has its own influence on buying behaviour.
Each person in the society is not only the member of his family but the member of some group or groups outside the family circle. It is one that provides an individual with a sense of identity, accomplishment and stability. Generally, a person refers to any one of the following types of reference groups in building his or her behaviour.
Here, the individual compares himself, his attitudes, his behaviour and his performance with the group of members. Thus, he may feel poor if members are richer than himself or vice versa. Here, the individual aspires to be the member of such group and imitates the behaviour of that group including buying behaviour.
Groups whose social perspectives are assumed by the individual as a frame-work of reference for his own actions: Here, an individual may adopt the views of the group without becoming a member. A person need not be a professional sportsman to have the opinion and outlook of a professional sportsman. Similarly, a person belonging to minority may adopt the values and the perspectives of a majority which he dislikes by very nature.
Consumers as social animals spend most of their time in group situations, and accept information provided by their groups on products, price, performance, style and the like.
It is group norms that direct the attention of its members towards a new product, a new brand. These reference groups have face to face interactions that provide word of mouth communication which is more powerful than formal advertising. A satisfied customer becomes the salesman of the product.
Very often we come across situations where a person refers to an individual than a group in formulating his or her behaviour pattern. The individual to whom such reference is made by a person or persons is the opinion leader. The beliefs, preferences, attitudes, actions and behaviour of the leader set a trend and a pattern for others to follow in given situation. In very intimate reference group, there is a reference person, an informal group leader. The group of followers respects him and looks up to him.
He is the innovator in the group of followers who respect him and look up to him. He is the innovator in the group who first tries new ideas and products and then propagates them to his followers. Marketers very often try to catch hold of the opinion leaders through ads and other means of communication. If they succeed in selling their ideas and products to the opinion leaders, then they have sold it to the entire group of followers behind them. Buying behaviour of individuals is also influenced by the social class and the caste to which they belong.
Social class is a relatively permanent and homogeneous division of a society into which individuals or families sharing similar values, life-style, interests and behaviour can be categorized. Social class is a larger group than intimate group in structure. Caste, on the other hand, is the group of the membership by birth.
It is not the wealth but the birth that decides his or her caste. These castes were based on activity specialisation of profession or occupation. From the marketing stand point, both social class and caste frame are quite relevant as buyer behaviour is influenced by these.
Each class and caste develops its own standards of style, living and behaviour patterns. It is not a surprise, and then if the members of such a class select a particular brand of product, shops at a particular store which caters to their group norms. This does not mean that all the members of the group buy the same products, same brands, or conform to same styles; however, more or less, it becomes a pattern with differential range of likings and leanings.
It is because of income pattern and traditional respect for higher castes, for in the eyes of Indian Constitution, all are equal. Culture adds yet another dimension to the study of consumer behaviour.
It includes cognitive elements, beliefs, values, and norms, signs and non-normative behaviour.
ADVERTISEMENTS: The determinants of consumer behaviour can be grouped into three major captions namely, economic, psychological and sociological. An attempt is .
The buying behavior of consumer is affected by a number of factors which are generally uncontrollable. These factors are also known as determinants of consumer buying behavior. These factors are also known as determinants of consumer buying behavior.
How can we analyze consumer market and what are determinants which tell buyer behavior? Ans. The most important issue for the marketers is to identify the needs of the consumers because customer and consumer makes the marketing process complete. Determinants & Factors influencing Consumer Behaviour In a Market, different consumers have different needs. As all consumers are unique they exhibit different behaviour while making a purchase decision due to various factors influencing consumer behaviour.
Predicting and understanding consumer behavior is one of the largest challenges a business can face. For every successful product or high-impact event, there are dozens of failures or mistakes. If you want to launch a new service, re-brand your business or simply improve your profitability, you will need a basic. Consumer behaviour and consumption behaviour are two different concepts developed and cannot be used as a substitute. Consumer behaviour deals with the process of an individual or organization in coming to the purchase decision, whereas consumption behaviour is .