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How to Write a Research Proposal

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❶If an agency does not, apply the APA style.

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The exact format and requirements for a research proposal can vary slightly depending on the type of research being proposed and the specific demands of the institution you plan to submit your proposal to, but there are a few basics that are almost always needed. Overall, a good research proposal takes time to write and must identify what the proposed research will address and why the proposed research is so important. Here is a brief explanation of the sections needed to complete a standard research proposal as well as the writing timeline you should strive to follow.

That is too long! Your abstract should only be words long, which means 1 page or less of double-spaced type. The purpose of an abstract is to give a brief snapshot of your proposed work: If you are having trouble adhering to this limit, consider working with a copy editor who can help you condense. Abstracts are considerably shorter than that. APA and other style guides specify words long, which is 1 page or less.

A brief summary of your problem, solution, and objectives is all you need, so this amount of space will be sufficient. Read on for another quiz question. By what point should you have finished drafting your research question, framework, and proposed research design? At this stage you should be reviewing and finalizing the completed draft of your proposal and preparing it for copyediting.

You should be revising your complete proposal at this stage. Revisions are time-intensive, and you will have a lot of small tasks left to complete, so you should finish this task earlier. It will take you weeks to do a thorough job with research, prewriting, and initial administrative tasks. It will also take you approximately 13 weeks to draft the rest of your proposal, then revise and finalize it.

Week 13 therefore makes an ideal target. To write a research proposal, start by writing an introduction that includes a statement of the problem that your research is trying to solve. After you've established the problem, move into describing the purpose and significance of your research within the field. After this introduction, provide your research questions and hypotheses, if applicable. Finally, describe your proposed research and methodology followed by any institutional resources you will use, like archives or lab equipment.

Scrivere una Proposta di Ricerca. Sample Research Proposal Outline. Come up with a title for your proposal. After reading your title, your readers should know what to expect from the proposal and be interested enough to read on. Create a title page. A title page introduces the title of your proposal, your name, and the primary institution you are connected to. Each sponsoring agency may specify a format for the title page.

If an agency does not, apply the APA style. Include a "running head" in the upper left corner. The running head will appear on all pages of the document and should be a shortened version of the title.

Include the page number in the upper right corner. The page number should appear on all pages of the proposal. Double space it, and immediately below the title, insert your name. In some styles, you may include their contact information as well. Summarize the proposal in your abstract. The abstract is a summary of the problem addressed in your proposal.

Your proposed solution and objectives should also be included, along with your projected funding requirements. Center the word "Abstract" at the top of the page. Begin the text of your abstract directly below the word "Abstract. The text of you abstract will usually be between and words. List keywords that will come up in your proposal. Choose keywords that capture the main points of your paper, suggesting what the topic is about as well as terms that are closely related.

Keywords should be phrases that many readers might be searching for. Choosing the right keywords will ensure that your proposal shows up in search engines for readers who could benefit from it.

For example, if your proposal is about heart diseases, you might use phrases like circulatory system, blood, heart attack, etc. Your keywords can be single words, or phrases of words. Include a table of contents.

Longer research proposals often include a table of contents on the third page, listing each major section of your paper. Brief proposals that only span a few pages do not often need a table of contents. Especially long proposals may also need a list of illustrations, figures, or tables. List all major parts and divisions of the proposal. Move into your introduction. Restate and center the title of your paper before moving into your introduction. Include a quick note about the topic being discussed and a definition of the theory from which your proposed research will be based.

Write "Statement of Problem" before moving into a paragraph detailing the problem. When writing this part of the introduction, seek to answer the question: Type "Purpose of Study" before writing this section of the introduction. Identify the goal of the study in one precise terms. Type "Significance of Research. Provide background in the introduction.

Identify the research problem and show why the work needs to be continued. If desired, you can break this section into multiple subsections. Under a header reading "Research Question" or "Research Hypothesis," describe the relationship between variables in the research or predict the relationship between variables. This essentially identifies the research problem. Under a header reading "Definition of Terms," define the central ideas that will be utilized in the proposed research.

Also provide evidence supporting your competence or expertise in the field. Write a Literature Review section to contextualize your research. Sum up existing research in a story-like manner that draws readers in while exposing the hole that your research will attempt to fill. Describe the proposed research. This section is the heart of the proposal and should include all information about your proposed methodology or approach. This section can also be titled "Methodology. Address the explanation to experts in the field rather than laymen.

The set up and information in this section will depend on whether your research is qualitative and quantitative. Be realistic about what you hope to accomplish, clear about your focus, and explicit about everything the research relies on. The description should also include a detailed schedule of the proposed work and thorough about all groundwork and materials needed. Also include information about sample size and target populations, if applicable.

Describe relevant institutional resources. If you are planning this research with institutional background, include a "Description of Relevant Institutional Resources" section to describe what your institution can offer. Identify information like the institution's past competence or contributions within the field of research, the university's supportive services, or the institution's research facilities.

Include a separate "References" page detailing all the references you have used thus far in identifying the problem and forming a research hypothesis. This section should contain biographical information about the main contributors to the research. Note that this section is not always included, especially for shorter proposals. State the expertise and responsibilities of each contributor. Include appendices, if necessary. Appendices are common to most types of research proposal.

They include any supporting documents that are necessary for readers to understand the proposal. Indicate the anticipated costs you need the funding source to meet and specify items being paid for by other funding sources.

Each cost should include justifying information. Part 1 Quiz True or False:

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The only elements missing from a research proposal are the findings of the study and your analysis of those results. Finally, an effective proposal is judged on the quality of your writing and, therefore, it is important that your writing is coherent, clear, and compelling.

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Writing My Proposal - Sample Proposals. Sample Research Proposals. Review the following sample research proposals. As you review each, consider how each element in the proposal is described and explained by the researcher, consider what is included, in what order it .

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Writing assignment series How to write a research proposal* These recommendations do not guarantee a successful research application! They are intended to help you conceptualize and prepare a research proposal. Determine a General Topic The first step in writing an academic research proposal is to idenitfy a general topic or subject area to investigate. Usually this first point is the easiest because the research proposal will be tied to the overall theme of a course.

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Mar 13,  · How to Write a Research Proposal. The exact format and requirements for a research proposal can vary slightly depending on the type of research being proposed and the specific demands of the institution you plan to submit your proposal to, %(10). WRITING AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PROPOSAL Marja J. Verhoef, PhD Robert J. Hilsden, MD MSc FRCPC Departments of Medicine and Community Health Sciences.