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SSRIs block serotonin receptors so that there can be a funnel effect, only a few key serotonin receptors get serotonin rather than all the receptors getting very little. Tricyclics enhance mood and reduce pain by increasing the amount of available serotonin by blocking non serotonin receptors to prevent them mistakenly taking serotonin.

These drugs reduce the symptoms of OCD. However, a negative of using anti-depressants are that they take up to 10 weeks to take effect depending on type and severity, this is a bad thing because the patient could give up easily after waiting weeks.

They could either take more anti-depressants or give up. They may think that taking more will work but it will prolong suffering. As soon as patients stop depending on the anti-depressants, they are highly likely to go back to their OCD tendencies, this is a criticism because the drugs only seem to treat the symptoms and not the cause.

Therefore, this clearly suggests that chemotherapy may not be an appropriate therapy for OCD as a long term solution. There are appropriateness issues such as the fact that is highly unethical to prolong suffering over 10 weeks when the drugs may not even work on the patient. This can cause more problems such as long term side effects nausea, mania. This will lead to their self-efficacy reducing. This is a bad thing because the patient would feel as if there will never be a cure, consequently making it much harder to overcome OCD.

It may make them depressed and make it harder to seek other forms of therapy. Therefore, chemotherapy may not be suitable for patients with different severity of OCD.

Another biological therapy for OCD is psychotherapy Moniz This is a last resort in the biological model, after years of chemotherapy and other therapies not being successful. The idea is damaging the brain to save the mind. Because of this, the biggest problem is expectations after surgery. There is no reliability as there is a very small sample of around 20 surgeries performed a year for OCD sufferers. This is a bad thing because expectations after surgery vary and may impact whether it works in the long term.

This also increases ethical issue of risk of suicide, it may not reach patients expectations, or the patient might be rejected from the waiting list by experts.

However, the surgery is planned out to a very stringent point that there cannot be any room for error. It uses medical science and computer technology that makes surgery accurate and risk free as possible. This is a good thing as medical science is reliable, objective and has been tested many times, reducing the possible threat of errors occurring.

However, the biological therapies for OCD are reductionist because when using drug treatments, the patients simply take the drugs to reduce OCD symptoms and are not made to look at other aspects of their live that could be influencing their OCD.

Also, when undergoing psychosurgery, it is simply a biological procedure and therefore takes away any cognitive element that may be involved in causing the OCD symptoms. This is a weakness because by only looking at one factor, we do not gain a valid, in depth understanding of all possible causes meaning any treatment developed will only treat part of the problem.

However, this could also be seen as a strength as by focusing on one factor alone, you can isolate cause and effect and therefore fully understand the role that the one factor in this case biological treatments plays in reducing OCD symptoms. Brain abnormality is one biological explanation to OCD. The orbital frontal cortex is a region of the frontal cortex which is involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. These thoughts would then hit the caudate nucleus which acts as a filter for unnecessary thoughts.

Those thoughts are suppressed but the rest are filtered through to the thalamus. This causes the C. N to not supress any unnecessary thoughts. All these thoughts go to the thalamus which decides that all the thoughts need to be acted upon since they pasted through the filter. Then the basal ganglia does all the thoughts, it acts on the compulsions. Because of the high levels of dopamine, this causes the basal ganglia to become overactive.

This creates a worry circuit. This is a strength of this approach to OCD it that it has face validity, it is believable that there would be a worry circuit because of over activity, repetitive behaviour is what forms rituals which are compulsions.

This supports that they are all linked with the basal ganglia and that it is overactive. However, a criticism of this explanation for OCD is that there is only a correlation between OCD and brain abnormality. In some OCD sufferers, the caudate nucleus is due to low levels of serotonin or brain damage, causing all unnecessary thoughts to be acted upon. This is a bad thing as we cannot scientifically prove that brain damage is the only reason, therefore there must be other causes such as the behaviourist approach to explaining OCD such as e.

A strength of brain abnormality as an explanation for OCD is that the way brain activity and damage is shown through brain scans has high validity. This is a strength because this was found using scientific brain scans which are objective and standardised so they are not affected by bias. Scientific research has control of extraneous variables, therefore there is a greater chance of not having a type 1 error.

The books are all downloadable ebooks only, You can print them however to make them into hardcopies too! Hi Aisha, I plan to write Addiction next and my hope for intelligence and learning was to try get it done in the new year. You get AO1 marks when you use research by outlining the study and its findings. Theres a list of possible questions in the product description for all my ebooks for the topics in question; the ebooks also have all the possible questions and all the possible essay model answers to them too.

I dont believe you will get asked for more than two explanations and two is generally the most I would learn for a given topic. When evaluating you need to be talking about whether your ao1 theory is supported or not and you can use other explanations if they are stronger thus weakening your ao1 and you use this as part of your evaluation as criticism. Yeah I would personally! They have come up twice on odd occasions so always learn them as a backup.

Your email address will not be published. You're At The Right Place! Studying Or Teaching Psychology? Saj Devshi Jedi Master at Loopa.

Since I've helped literally thousands of students achieve some amazing grades for A level Psychology and get into their chosen universities - Even schools across the UK now use my resources. If you're studying Psychology why not Follow me on Twitter, LIKE my Facebook page or subscribe to my YouTube channel and get tons of free resources and updates and see just how well you can do too.

Latest posts by Saj Devshi see all. Yeah its as I suspected — students dont link back to how it impacts the theory. For your example you need to explain why exactly and add more depth, heres an example from my behaviourist treatment evaluation from my Psya4 Schizophrenia book: For your biological point — I think you need to expand it more to explain why with a bit more depth — perhaps give an example, perhaps something like totally off my head: Hi, Please could you tell me the predictions for OCD, media and research methods if you have any for them Reply.

Hi, do you have a list anywhere of all the possible essays that could come up as well as this? Submit a Comment Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

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Jul 08,  · Practice question packs: AQA Psychology A level A selection of past paper questions for the following topics: social influence, memory, attachment, psychopathology, biopsychology, approaches and research methods, as well as all the specimen papers. Past exam papers and mark schemes for AQA, Edexcel, OCR, WJEC, CIE, Eduqas and Edexcel IAL Psychology A-levels.

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AQA A-Level Psychology past exam papers and marking schemes, the past papers are free to download for you to use as practice for your exams. Past papers archive search results for a level aqa psychology past papers. Please note, all these 10 pdf files are located of other websites, not on bestqup2m.ga