Following is a list of principles and qualities applied to phenomenological methodology and data collection:. Several researchers have described variations of the for the steps used in phenomenology. The following diagram provides an example of a more detailed description of the steps in a phenomenology study. Data analysis will be the focus of the next module in this series. Phenomenological Research Methods — Contains a detailed descriptive of different types of phenomenological research methods.
This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. List and describe the steps involved in a phenomenology study. Describe the basic principles applied to phenomenological methodology and data collection. Discuss ways in which phenomenological data can be collected. Summarize tips for conducting an effective interview. Following is a list of principles and qualities applied to phenomenological methodology and data collection: Phenomenology searches for the meaning or essence of an experience rather than measurements or explanations.
Researcher should begin with the practice of Epoche. He or she will describe their own experiences or ideas related to phenomenon to increase their own awareness of their underlying feelings. Click the following links to read more about data collection techniques: Click here to see a sample key informant interview.
Click here to see a sample survey on middle school youth risk behavior. Site visits to an after-school program to document the interaction between youth and staff within the program. A group of parents of teenagers in an after-school program are invited to informally discuss programs that might benefit and help their children succeed.
Ethnographies, Oral History, and Case Studies. Shadowing a family while recording extensive field notes to study the experience and issues associated with youth who have a parent or guardian that has been deployed.
Click here for an example of an oral history. Click here for an additional example of an oral history. An experimental design does not eliminate intervening or extraneous variables; but, it attempts to account for their effects.
The random assignment of individual subjects to comparison groups; The extent to which the independent variable can be manipulated by the researcher; The time when the observations or measurements of the dependent variable occur; and Which groups are measured and how. The portion of a sample or population that is exposed to a manipulation of the independent variable is known as the treatment group.
For example, youth who enroll and participate in recreation programs are the treatment group, and the group to which no recreation services are provided constitutes the control group.
There are two primary criteria for evaluating the validity of an experimental design. Determines whether the independent variable made a difference in the study? Can a cause-and-effect relationship be observed? To achieve internal validity, the researcher must design and conduct the study so that only the independent variable can be the cause of the results Cozby, External validity , refers to the extent to which findings can be generalized or be considered representative of the population.
Premeasurement and interaction errors Maturation errors History errors Instrumentation errors Selection bias errors Mortality errors. Survey the literature for current research related to your study. Define the problem, formulate a hypothesis, define basic terms and variables, and operationalize variables.
Develop a research plan: Select a research design see Chapter 3. Randomly select subjects and randomly assign them to groups. Validate all instruments used. Develop data collection procedures, conduct a pilot study, and refine the instrument. State the null and alternative hypotheses and set the statistical significance level of the study.
Conduct the research experiment s. Analyze all data, conduct appropriate statistical tests and report results. The primary difference between true designs and quasi designs is that quasi designs do not use random assignment into treatment or control groups since this design is used in existing naturally occurring settings.
Groups are given pretests, then one group is given a treatment and then both groups are given a post-test. This creates a continuous question of internal and external validity, since the subjects are self-selected.
The steps used in a quasi design are the same as true designs. An ex post facto design will determine which variables discriminate between subject groups.
Formulate the research problem including identification of factors that may influence dependent variable s. Identify alternate hypotheses that may explain the relationships. Identify and select subject groups. Collect and analyze data Ex post facto studies cannot prove causation, but may provide insight into understanding of phenomenon. The NGT is a group discussion structuring technique.
It is useful for providing a focused effort on topics. The NGT provides a method to identify issues of concern to special interest groups or the public at large. Ewert noted that the NGT is a collective decision-making technique for use in park and recreation planning and management.
The NGT is used to obtain insight into group issues, behaviors and future research needs. The final list of ideas becomes the focus of further research and discussion.
These ideas can also be used to generate a work plan for a formal strategic planning process, a basis for a survey or interview, or the development of a scale. The delphi method was developed to structure discussions and summarize options from a selected group to: Although the data may prove to be valuable, the collection process is very time consuming.
When time is available and respondents are willing to be queried over a period of time, the technique can be very powerful in identifying trends and predicting future events.
The technique requires a series of questionnaires and feedback reports to a group of individuals. A new questionnaire is prepared that includes the new material, and the process is repeated until a consensus is reached.
The reading below is a research study that used the delphi technique and content analysis to develop a national professional certification program.
Richard Krueger , describe the focus group as a special type of group in terms of purpose, size, composition, and procedures. A focus group is typically composed of seven to twelve participants who are unfamiliar with each other and conducted by a trained interviewer. These participants are selected because they have certain characteristics in common that relate to the topic of the focus group. The researcher creates a permissive environment in the focus group that nurtures different perceptions and points of view, without pressuring participants to vote, plan, or reach consensus.
The group discussion is conducted several times with similar types of participants to identify trends and patterns in perceptions. Careful and systematic analysis of the discussions provide clues and insights as to how a product, service, or opportunity is perceived.
A focus group can be defined as a carefully planned discussion designed to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest in a permissive, nonthreatening environment. It is conducted with approximately seven to twelve people by a skilled interviewer.
The discussion is relaxed, comfortable, and often enjoyable for participants as they share their ideas and perceptions. Group members influence each other by responding to ideas and comments in the discussion.
Focus group interviews typically have four characteristics: Other types of group processes used in human services delphic, nominal, planning, therapeutic, sensitivity, or advisory may have one or more of these features, but not in the same combination as those of focus group interviews.
Data Collection is an important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection can impact the results of a study and ultimately lead to invalid results. Data collection methods for impact evaluation vary along a continuum.
Data collection is a process of collecting information from all the relevant sources to find answers to the research problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the outcomes. Data collection methods can be divided into two categories: secondary methods of data collection and primary methods of data.
whereas qualitative work (small q) refers to open-ended data collection methods such as indepth interviews embedded in structured research (Kidder and Fine, ). DATA COLLECTION Research methodology A brief and succinct account on what the techniques for collecting data are, how to apply them, where to Magister “Civilisation: find data of any type, and the way to keep records for language and Cultural an optimal management of cost, time and effort.
It is also worth remembering at this stage that all methods of data collection can supply quantitative data (numbers and statistics) or qualitative data (usually words or text). You have, however, selected from the two main traditions of approaching a research topic – quantitative and qualitative. In collecting the data, the researcher must decide: Which data to collect How to collect the data Who will collect the data When to collect the data 4. The selection of data collection method should be based on the following: The identified hypothesis or research problem The research design The information gathered about the variables.