Governor Bernard, however, objected to sending the sitting lieutenant governor, and the bill was enacted. Much colonial protest followed, and Hutchinson was in agreement with vocal opponents like the Otises who around this time began using the phrase " no taxation without representation " that the law harmed the Massachusetts economy.
Led by James Otis, Jr. Hutchinson was at first dismissive of these ongoing political attacks, believing that his opponents were either misguided or misled. Biographer Andrew Walmsley observes that Hutchinson at this stage seriously underestimated the impact of these attacks in building a coherent opposition to crown control, and in the damage it was doing to his own reputation. In debates leading up to the passage of the Stamp Act , both Hutchinson and Bernard quietly warned London not to proceed.
Hutchinson in particular wrote that "It cannot be good to tax the Americans You will lose more than you gain. Isaac Barre , a prominent Member of Parliament, drew heavily on the themes presented in Hutchinson's letters: They grew by your neglect. They have nobly taken up arms in your defense" on the floor of Parliament in opposition to the Stamp Act.
However, the Massachusetts petition was seen as weak in comparison to those prepared by other colonies, and Hutchinson was claimed to be secretly seeking to promote the Stamp Act. He was also accused of "treachery" and "betraying his country". Hutchinson's brother-in-law, colonial secretary Andrew Oliver , was given the job of "stamp master", with responsibility for implementing the act in the province.
Although Hutchinson apparently had no hand in this assignment, his opponents were quick to accuse him of further duplicity. The next night Hutchinson's Boston mansion was surrounded, and the crowd demanded that he formally deny arguing in favour of the Stamp Act in his correspondence with London.
He refused, and only the intervention of a moderate leader prevented any action that night. Twelve days later, on the evening of 26 August, a mob again formed outside of his mansion, and this time they would not be denied. Described by one architectural historian as "the first developed example of provincial Palladianism in New England,"  the house was broken into Hutchinson and his family narrowly escaping , and systematically ransacked. The house finishings wainscoting and other decorative woodwork were effectively destroyed, and even the building's cupola was taken down in violence that lasted the entire night.
The family silver, furniture, and other items were stolen or destroyed although some items were eventually returned , and Hutchinson's collection of historically important manuscripts was scattered. Hutchinson was then working on the final volume of his three volume history of the Massachusetts Bay colony. Many pages of the work were lost that night and had to be recreated. Because of the controversy over the Stamp Act, the radical faction came to control both the assembly and the governor's council in , and Hutchinson was denied a seat on the governor's council.
Letters written by Bernard describing conditions in the province were acquired by the radical opposition and published, leading to his recall. Bernard left for England on 1 August , leaving Hutchinson as acting governor. He categorically refused to again serve as lieutenant governor under another governor, preferring instead a posting elsewhere, or to resign the lieutenant governorship.
Hutchinson was still acting governor when protests over the Townshend taxes erupted into the Boston Massacre on 5 March , when British soldiers fired into a crowd, killing five people.
He had all of the British soldiers involved in the incident arrested the next day, but ongoing unrest in the city compelled him to request the withdrawal of British troops from the city to Castle William. The soldiers were eventually tried, and two were convicted of manslaughter, although their sentences were reduced. The episode shook Hutchinson's confidence in his ability to manage affairs in the province, and he penned a resignation letter.
Governor Bernard had, in the mean time, taken up Hutchinson's cause in London. In March Hutchinson's commission as governor arrived in Boston, having been approved by the king while his resignation letter was going the other way. Colonial secretary Lord Hillsborough rejected his resignation. Instructions that particularly galled Samuel Adams included one restricting the meetings of the governor's council, and another limiting the appointment of colonial agents to individuals having the governor's approval.
One of Hutchinson's instructions was to relocate the provincial assembly from Boston to Cambridge , where it would be less under the influence of radical Boston politics. This modest demand, accomplished by executive order, resulted in howls of complaint of gubernatorial arbitrariness in the assembly, and an exchange of arguments, rebuttals, and counterarguments between Hutchinson and the assembly that ran for thousands of pages and lasted until This was seen by the radicals as a further usurpation of power that rightfully belonged in the province.
They also raised flags elsewhere in the colonies and in England, where observers noted that Hutchinson's arguments had effectively driven moderates in the province to join with the political hardliners. The Massachusetts debate reached a pitch in when Hutchinson, in a speech to the assembly, argued that either the colony was wholly subject to Parliament, or that it was effectively independent. The assembly's response, authored by John Adams, Samuel Adams, and Joseph Hawley , countered that the colonial charter granted autonomy.
Franklin had acquired a packet of letters,  written in the late s by Hutchinson and other colonial officials, from which he concluded that Hutchinson and Oliver had mischaracterized the situation in the colonies, and thus misled Parliament.
Believing that wider knowledge of these letters would focus colonial anger away from Parliament and at those who had written the misleading letters,  Franklin sent the letters to Thomas Cushing , the speaker of the Massachusetts assembly, in December Hutchinson's letters, written between and to Thomas Whately , a retired former leading member of the British government, included the observation that it was impossible for colonists to have the full rights they would have in the home country, essentially requiring an "abridgement of what are called English liberties ".
Although much of what Hutchinson wrote in the letters was not particularly new, Samuel Adams masterfully manipulated the contents and implications of some of the statements by Hutchinson and Oliver to suggest they were conspiring with officials in London to deprive the colonists of their rights.
The Massachusetts assembly drafted a petition to the Board of Trade demanding Hutchinson's removal from office, and Hutchinson, concerned with the effect the letter publication and the assembly petition would have in London, requested permission to come to England to defend himself. In the meantime, Parliament had repealed most of the Townshend taxes keeping only the one on tea , and passed the Tea Act , which authorised the British East India Company to ship tea directly to the colonies, eliminating colonial merchants from its supply chain and undercutting the price of smuggled Dutch tea.
Hutchinson and his sons were among the businessmen to whom the company had consigned its tea, although Hutchinson disclaimed any official role in the choice of consignee. Hutchinson took a hard line, refusing to allow the tea ships to leave the harbour despite citywide protests that the tea be sent back to England, and insisting that the duty be paid and the tea landed. When the twenty-day deadline arrived on 16 December, protestors some in Indian disguise boarded the ships that night and dumped the tea into the harbour.
Hutchinson justified the hardline stance that contributed to the crisis by claiming it was his duty as governor to uphold the revenue laws, while American opponents such as James Bowdoin observed that he could have just as easily refused to accept the tea when it was clear that popular sentiment would make it impossible to land the tea. British critics complained that he should have asked the British troops in Boston to intervene. After it became known that other tea ships sent to North America had turned back, Hutchinson continued to justify his actions in letters to England, anticipating hearings on the matter once he arrived there.
When the Board of Trade met to consider the assembly's petition to recall Hutchinson, it also discussed the tea party. Create Account Welcome to Your subscriber account must first be validated.
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Pages Liked by This Page. American Red Cross serving Kansas. McPherson County Crime Stoppers. Newton KS Police Department. Y'all really have a racket going on. We get a New paper carrier that will not deliver the paper to Me, the subscriber, go down to the Kwikshop and buy a paper because it was never delivered to my home.
You the printer, get paid twice for the paper. So, I pay for the paper again by having to purchase it again at the Kwikshop. You only make sure that negative things about people are put in the newspaper. He was changing his life and he was young. So write good things telling people facts about who he was not just what he was in prison for.
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